NCBI Summary
Members of the trefoil family are characterized by having at least one copy of the trefoil motif, a 40-amino acid domain that contains three conserved disulfides. They are stable secretory proteins expressed in gastrointestinal mucosa. Their functions are not defined, but they may protect the mucosa from insults, stabilize the mucus layer and affect healing of the epithelium. The encoded protein inhibits gastric acid secretion. This gene and two other related trefoil family member genes are found in a cluster on chromosome 21. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008].
Protein (NP_005414)
Trefoil factor 2
Trefoil factor 2 (Spasmolysin) (Spasmolytic polypeptide) (SP)
trefoil factor 2
Trefoil Factor
Protein sequence and protein families (fasta) (129 amino acids) Download
No structure currently available in the PDB RCSB Databank.
Structural models
Model Confidence:
  •    Very high (pLDDT > 90)
  •    Confident (90 > pLDDT > 70)
  •    Low (70 > pLDDT > 50)
  •    Very low (pLDDT < 50)

  AlphaFold produces a per-residue confidence score (pLDDT) between 0 and 100. Some regions with low pLDDT may be unstructured in isolation.

SWISS-MODEL structural models
Modeller structural model (Homology modelling pipeline), Error: [1.18, 1.43] ÅDownload
The location of the lectin domain structural model is: 29-73
We infer [1.18, 1.43] Å as the interval of error of this structural model.
Template 1: 6V1D chain: A, P04155, NP_003216.1, sequence identity: 53.3%, coverage: 100.0%, location in sequence: 28-73, (2-47 in PDB).
Template 2: 6V1C chain: A, Q07654, NP_003217.3, sequence identity: 44.4%, coverage: 100.0%, location in sequence: 29-74, (8-53 in PDB).
Show the alignment used for the construction of the structural model, Download.
Show the plot of DOPE energy score, Download.
Glycan ligands from structural data
No crystal structures of complexes with glycan ligand.
NCBI References (10 PubMed Identifiers)
  • Pyloric, pseudopyloric, and spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasias in autoimmune gastritis: a case series of 22 Japanese patients. [33515301]
  • Trefoil Factor 2 (TFF2) as a Surrogate Marker for Endocervical Gastric-type Carcinoma. [32897966]
  • Interactome Mapping Provides a Network of Neurodegenerative Disease Proteins and Uncovers Widespread Protein Aggregation in Affected Brains. [32814053]
  • MUC1 is associated with TFF2 methylation in gastric cancer. [32122390]
  • Human Synovia Contains Trefoil Factor Family (TFF) Peptides 1-3 Although Synovial Membrane Only Produces TFF3: Implications in Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis. [31817054]
  • Initial assessment of human gene diversity and expression patterns based upon 83 million nucleotides of cDNA sequence. [7566098]
  • The ligand binding site of the neurokinin 2 receptor. Site-directed mutagenesis and identification of neurokinin A binding residues in the human neurokinin 2 receptor. [7961636]
  • Spasmolytic polypeptide is a major antral peptide: distribution of the trefoil peptides human spasmolytic polypeptide and pS2 in the stomach. [8405856]
  • The gene encoding the human spasmolytic protein (SML1/hSP) is in 21q 22.3, physically linked to the homologous breast cancer marker gene BCEI/pS2. [1505966]
  • hSP, the domain-duplicated homolog of pS2 protein, is co-expressed with pS2 in stomach but not in breast carcinoma. [2303034]
UniProt Main References (3 PubMed Identifiers)
  • The three human trefoil genes TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3 are located within a region of 55 kb on chromosome 21q22.3. [9070946]
  • Refined localization of autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness DFNB10 locus using 34 novel microsatellite markers, genomic structure, and exclusion of six known genes in the region. [10950923]
  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). [15489334]
RNA (Transcript ID: NM_005423.5)
trefoil factor 2
  • Coding region
DNA (Gene ID: 7032)
trefoil factor 2
strand -
NCBI CDS gene sequence (390 bp)
NCBI CDS gene sequence with introns (location: 42346533.. 42350957) (4425 bp)Download
NCBI CDS gene sequence with introns, 5'UTR and 3'UTR (location: 42346357.. 42350994) (4638 bp)Download
NCBI gene sequence (location: [42346357.. 42350994 + 1000]) (5638 bp)Download
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