NCBI Summary
Members of the trefoil family are characterized by having at least one copy of the trefoil motif, a 40-amino acid domain that contains three conserved disulfides. They are stable secretory proteins expressed in gastrointestinal mucosa. Their functions are not defined, but they may protect the mucosa from insults, stabilize the mucus layer and affect healing of the epithelium. This gene is expressed in goblet cells of the intestines and colon. This gene and two other related trefoil family member genes are found in a cluster on chromosome 21. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008].
Protein (NP_003217)
Trefoil factor 3
Trefoil factor 3 (Intestinal trefoil factor) (hITF) (Polypeptide P1.B) (hP1.B)
trefoil factor 3
Trefoil Factor
Protein sequence and protein families (fasta) (80 amino acids) Download
Mol* PDB structure viewerUniLectin3D
Structural models
Model Confidence:
  •    Very high (pLDDT > 90)
  •    Confident (90 > pLDDT > 70)
  •    Low (70 > pLDDT > 50)
  •    Very low (pLDDT < 50)

  AlphaFold produces a per-residue confidence score (pLDDT) between 0 and 100. Some regions with low pLDDT may be unstructured in isolation.

Glycan ligands from structural data
NCBI References (10 PubMed Identifiers)
  • Chemical Synthesis of TFF3 Reveals Novel Mechanistic Insights and a Gut-Stable Metabolite. [34142550]
  • TFF3 mediates the NF-kappaB/COX2 pathway to regulate PMN-MDSCs activation and protect against necrotizing enterocolitis. [33547649]
  • The diagnostic and clinicopathological value of trefoil factor 3 in patients with gastric cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. [33401971]
  • HOXB13 and TFF3 can contribute to the prognostic stratification of prostate adenocarcinoma. [34609407]
  • The gene encoding human intestinal trefoil factor (TFF3) is located on chromosome 21q22.3 clustered with other members of the trefoil peptide family. [8833157]
  • A third P-domain peptide gene (TFF3), human intestinal trefoil factor, maps to 21q22.3. [8641134]
  • Characterization of the genomic structure and the promoter region of the human intestinal trefoil factor. [7669039]
  • Characterization of human and rat intestinal trefoil factor produced in yeast. [7718582]
  • hP1.B, a human P-domain peptide homologous with rat intestinal trefoil factor, is expressed also in the ulcer-associated cell lineage and the uterus. [8346203]
  • Identification of human intestinal trefoil factor. Goblet cell-specific expression of a peptide targeted for apical secretion. [8454642]
UniProt Main References (11 PubMed Identifiers)
  • The three human trefoil genes TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3 are located within a region of 55 kb on chromosome 21q22.3. [9070946]
  • Refined localization of autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness DFNB10 locus using 34 novel microsatellite markers, genomic structure, and exclusion of six known genes in the region. [10950923]
  • The DNA sequence of human chromosome 21. [10830953]
  • mRNA 5' region sequence incompleteness: a potential source of systematic errors in translation initiation codon assignment in human mRNAs. [14637006]
  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). [15489334]
  • Signal peptide prediction based on analysis of experimentally verified cleavage sites. [15340161]
  • Comprehensive proteomic analysis of human endometrial fluid aspirate. [19670903]
  • Coexistence of intestinal trefoil factor (hITF) and oxytocin in magnocellular neurons in the human hypothalamus. [10824705]
  • Trefoil factor family-peptides promote migration of human bronchial epithelial cells: synergistic effect with epidermal growth factor. [11694446]
  • Incorporation of mannose and glucose into prenylphosphate sugars in isolated human platelet membranes. [18209]
  • Show more
RNA (Transcript ID: NM_003226.4)
trefoil factor 3
  • Coding region
DNA (Gene ID: 7033)
trefoil factor 3
strand -
NCBI CDS gene sequence (243 bp)
NCBI CDS gene sequence with introns (location: 42312256.. 42315374) (3119 bp)Download
NCBI CDS gene sequence with introns, 5'UTR and 3'UTR (location: 42311667.. 42315409) (3743 bp)Download
NCBI gene sequence (location: [42311667.. 42315409 + 1000]) (4743 bp)Download
How to cite: Schnider B., M'Rad Y., el Ahmadie J., de Brevern AG., Imberty A., Lisacek F., HumanLectome, an update of UniLectin for the annotation and prediction of human lectins, Nucleic Acids Reasearch